journal articles


Sætra, H.S, Coeckelbergh, M., Danaher, J. 2023. ‘The AI Ethicist’s Dirty Hands Problem,’ in Communications of the ACM 66(1), 39-41.


Coeckelbergh, M. 2022. ‘Democracy, epistemic agency, and AI: political epistemology in times of artificial intelligence,’ in AI and Ethics. Online first 22 November 2022.

Sætra, H.S., Borgebund, H., Coeckelbergh, M. 2022. ‘Avoid diluting democracy by algorithms,’ Nature Machine Intelligence.

Owe, A., Baum, S.D., and Coeckelbergh, M. 2022. “Nonhuman Value: A Survey of the Intrinsic Valuation of Natural and Artificial Nonhuman Entities,” in Science and Engineering Ethics. Online first 30 August 2022.

Coeckelbergh, M. 2022. ‘The Grammars of AI: Towards a Structuralist and Transcendental Hermeneutics of Digital Technologies,’ in Technology and Language 3(2), 148-161.

Gunkel, D., Gerdes, A., and Coeckelbergh, M. 2022. ‘Editorial: Should Robots Have Standing? The Moral and Legal Status of Social Robots‘ in Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 16 June 2022.

Coeckelbergh, M. 2022. ‘Response: Language and Robots,’ in Technology and Language (3)1: 147-154. (The article is an answer to the works comprising a special issue of Technology and Language responding to my work on the topic.)

Coeckelbergh, M. 2022. ‘The Ubuntu Robot: Towards a Relational Conceptual Framework for Intercultural Robotics,’ in Science and Engineering Ethics. Online first 29 March 2022.

Raper, R., Boeddinghaus, J., Coeckelbergh, M., Gross, W., Campigotto, P., and Lincoln, C.N. 2022. ‘Sustainability Budgets: A Practical Management and Governance Method for Achieving Goal 13 of the Sustainable Development Goals for AI Development,’ Sustainability 14(7), 4019.


Coeckelbergh, M. 2021. ‘Narrative responsibility and artificial intelligence,’ in AI & Society. Online first 30 December 2021.

Sætra H. S., Coeckelbergh, M., and Danaher, J. 2021. ‘The AI ethicist’s dilemma: fighting Big Tech by supporting Big Tech,’ in AI and Ethics. Online first 8 December 2021.

Coeckelbergh, M. 2021. ‘Time Machines: Artificial Intelligence, Process, and Narrative,’ in Philosophy & Technology. Online first 23 October 2021.

Coeckelbergh, M. 2021. `Defamiliarizing Technology, Habituation, and the Need for a Structuralist Approach,’ in Foundations of Science. Online first 2 June 2021.

Coeckelbergh, M. 2021. ‘Cascading Morality After Dewey: A Proposal for a Pluralist Meta-Ethics with a Subsidiarity Hierarchy,’ in Contemporary Pragmatism 18: 18-35.

Olya, K., and Coeckelbergh, M. 2021. ‘“Alexa, Define Empowerment”: Voice Assistants at Home, Appropriation and Technoperformances,‘ in Journal of Information, Communcation and Ethics in Society 19(2): 299-312. Online first 10 May 2021.

Ebell, C., Baeza-Yates, R., Benjamins, R., Cai, H., Coeckelbergh, M., Duarte, T., Hickok, M., Jacquet, A., Kim, A., Krijger, J., MacInytre, J., Madhamshettiwar, P., Maffeo, L., Matthews, J., Medsker, L., Smith, P., and Thais, S. 2021 ‘Towards Intellectual Freedom in an AI Ethics Global Community,’ in AI and Ethics. Online first 13 April 2021.

Coeckelbergh, M. 2021.  ‘Earth, Technology, Language: A Contribution to Holistic and Transcendental Revisions After the Artifactual Turn,’ in Foundations of Science. Online first 11 April 2021.

Coeckelbergh, M. 2021. ‘Three Responses to Anthropomorphism in Social Robotics: Towards a Critical, Relational, and Hermeneutic Approach,’ in International Journal of Social Robotics. Online first 22 March 2021.

Coeckelbergh, M. 2021. ‘How to Use Virtue Ethics for Thinking About the Moral Standing of Social Robots: A Relational Interpretation in Terms of Practices, Habits, and Performance,’ in International Journal of Social Robotics 13(1): 31-40. Online first 23 October 2020.

Coeckelbergh, M. 2021. ‘AI for climate: freedom, justice, and other ethical and political challenges,’ in AI and Ethics 1: 67-72. Online first 6 October 2020.


Coeckelbergh, M. 2020. ‘Should We Treat Teddy Bear 2.0 as a Kantian Dog? Four Arguments for the Indirect Moral Standing of Personal Social Robots, with Implications for Thinking About Animals and Humans,’ in Minds and Machines 31(3), 337-360. Online first 30 December 2020.

Eckert, C., Isaksson, O., Eckert, C., Coeckelbergh, M., and Hagström, M. H. 2020. ‘Data Fairy in Engineering Land: The Magic of Data Analysis as a Sociotechnical Process in Engineering Companies,’ in Journal of Mechanical Design 142(12), article no. 121402.

Coeckelbergh, M. 2020. ‘When Machines Talk: A Brief of Analysis of Some Relations between Technology and Language,’ in Technology and Language 1(1): 22-27.

Parviainen, J. and Coeckelbergh, M. 2020. ‘The Political Choreography of the Sophia Robot: Beyond Robot Rights and Citizenship to Political Performances for the Social Robotics Market‘ in AI & Society. Online first 12 November 2020.

Coeckelbergh, M. 2020. ‘Technoperformances: Using metaphors from the performance arts for a postphenomenology and posthermeneutics of technology use,’ in AI & Society 35(3): 557-568. Online first 31 December 2019.

Coeckelbergh, M. 2020. ‘The Postdigital in Pandemic Times: a Comment on the Covid-19 Crisis and its Political Epistemologies,’ in Postdigital Science and Education 2(3): 547-550. Online first 19 April 2020. Spanish translation by Tamara Rojas Triana, in Revisita Internacional de Filosofia Hodós 10(13): 63-68.

Coeckelbergh, M. 2020. ‘Artificial Intelligence, Responsibility Attribution, and a Relational Justification of Explainability,’ in Science and Engineering Ethics 26(4): 2051-2068. Online first 24 October 2019.


Coeckelbergh, M. 2019. ‘Artificial Intelligence: Some ethical issues and regulatory challenges,’ in Technology and Regulation, 31-34. [Entire issue]

Cao, H-L., Esteban, P. B., Bartlett, M., Baxter, P., Belpaeme, T., Billing, E., Cai, H., Coeckelbergh, M., Costescu, C., David, D., De Beir, A., Hernandez, D., Kennedy, J., Liu, H., Matu, S., Mazel, A., Pandey, A., Richardson, K., Senft, E., Thill, S., Van de Perre, G., Vanderborght, B., Verron, D., Wakunuma, K., Yu, H., Yhou, X., and Ziemke, T. 2019. ‘Robot-Enhanced Therapy: Development and Validation of a Supervised Autonomous Robotic System for Autism Spectrum Disorders Therapy,’ in: IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine. Online first 5 April 2019.

Gabriels, K. and Coeckelbergh, M. 2019. ‘Technologies of the self and other’: how self-tracking technologies also shape the other‘, in Journal of Information, Communication, and Ethics in Society 17(2): 119-127.


Coeckelbergh, M., Funk, M., and Koller, S. 2018. ‘Wittgenstein and Philosophy of Technology: Introduction‘, in ‘Wittgenstein and Philosophy of Technology’, special issue, Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 22(3): 287-295.

Coeckelbergh, M. 2018. ‘The art, poetics, and grammar of technological innovation as practice, process, and performance‘, in: AI & Society 33(4), 501-510. (online first 25 March 2017)

Coeckelbergh, M. 2018. ‘Technology Games: Using Wittgenstein for Understanding and Evaluating Technology‘ in: Science and Engineering Ethics 24(5): 1503-1519 (online first 15 August 2017).

Holzapfel, A., Sturm, B.L. & Coeckelbergh, M., 2018. ‘Ethical Dimensions of Music Information Retrieval Technology‘, in: Transactions of the International Society for Music Information Retrieval. 1(1): 44–55.

Coeckelbergh, M. 2018. ‘Why Care About Robots? Empathy, Moral Standing, and the Language of Suffering ‘, in: Kairos. Journal of Philosophy & Science 20(1): 141-158.

Coeckelbergh, M. 2018. ‘How to describe and evaluate “deception” phenomena: Recasting the metaphysics, ethics, and politics of ICTs in terms of magic and performance and taking a relational and narrative turn‘, in: Ethics and Information Technology 20(2): 71–85, Springer (first online 19 October 2017).

Richardson, K., Coeckelbergh, M., Wakunuma, K., Billing, E., Ziemke, T., Gomez, P., Vanderborght, B., Belpaeme, T. 2018, “Robot Enhanced Therapy for Children with Autism (DREAM): A Social Model of Autism,” in IEEE Technology and Society Magazine 37(1): 30-39.

Coeckelbergh, M., DuPont, Q., & Reijers, W. 2018. ‘Towards a Philosophy of Financial Technologies‘ in Philosophy and Technology 31(1):9-14. (online first )

Reijers, W. and Coeckelbergh, M. 2018. ‘The Blockchain as a Narrative Technology: Investigating the Social Ontology and Normative Configurations of Cryptocurrencies‘ in: Philosophy and Technology 31(1): 103–130. [access via SharedIt] (online first, 31 October 2016, open access [access via SharedIt])

Coeckelbergh, M. (2018). ‘Technology and the good society: A polemical essay on social ontology, political principles, and responsibility for technology‘ in Technology in Society (52), 4-9. (online first 12 December 2016).

Coeckelbergh, M. (2018). ‘Skillful coping with and through technologies: Some challenges and avenues for a Dreyfus-inspired philosophy of technology‘ in AI & Society (2018), Springer.

Coeckelbergh, M. and Funk, M. (2018). ‘Wittgenstein as a Philosopher of Technology: Tool Use, Forms of Life, Technique, and a Transcendental Argument‘ in Human Studies 41(2): 165–191, Springer.


Coeckelbergh, M. 2017 (2016). ‘Can Machines Create Art?‘ in: Philosophy & Technology, 30 (3): 285-303. (online first, 24 September 2016) [access via SharedIt]

Coeckelbergh, M. 2017 (2015). Hacking technological practices and the vulnerability of the modern hero’ in: Foundations of Science 22: 357-362 (online first 19 October 2015). (reply to Gunkel and Zwart) [access via SharedIt]

Coeckelbergh, M. 2017 (2015). ‘The art of living with ICTs: The ethics-aesthetics of vulnerability coping and its implications for understanding and evaluating ICT cultures’ in: Foundations of Science 22: 339-348 (online first 19 October 2015). (published with replies by David Gunkel and Hub Zwart) [access via SharedIt]

Esteban, PG, Baxter, P, Belpaeme, T, Billing, E, Cai, H, Cao, H-L, Coeckelbergh, M, Costescu, C, David, D, De Beir, A, Fang, Y, Ju, Z, Kennedy, J, Liu, H, Mazel, A, Pandey, A, Richardson, K, Senft, E, Thill, S, Van de Perre, G, Vanderborght, B, Vernon, D, Yu, H & Ziemke, T. 2017. ‘How to Build a Supervised Autonomous System for Robot-Enhanced Therapy for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder‘ in Paladyn Journal of Behavioral Robotics (8): 18-38.

Coeckelbergh, M. 2017. ‘Language and Technology: Maps, Bridges, and Pathways‘ in: AI & Society 32(2): 175-189 (online first 2015).


Coeckelbergh, M. 2016. ‘Responsibility and the Moral Phenomenology of Using Self-Driving Cars‘ in: Applied Artificial Intelligence 30(8): 748-757.

Stahl, B.C. and Coeckelbergh, M. 2016. ‘Ethics of healthcare robotics: Towards responsible research and innovation‘ in: Robotics and Autonomous Systems 86: 152-161 (open access). [access via SharedIt]

Coeckelbergh, M. 2016. ‘Care robots and the future of ICT-mediated elderly care: a response to doom scenarios‘ in: AI & Society 31(4): 455-462 (online first 2015).

Coeckelbergh, M. and Gunkel, D. 2016. ‘Response to “The Problem of the Question About Animal Ethics” by Michal Piekarski’ in: Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Ethics 29(4): 717-721. [access via SharedIt]

Peca, A., Coeckelbergh, M., Simut, R., Costescu, C., Pintea, S., David, D., & Vanderborght, B. (2016). ‘Robot Enhanced Therapy for Children with Autism Disorders: Measuring Ethical Acceptability’ in:IEEE Technology and Society Magazine 35(2): 54-66.

Coeckelbergh, M. and Reijers, W. 2016. ‘Narrative Technologies: A Philosophical Investigation of Narrative Capacities of Technologies by Using Ricoeur’s Narrative Theory‘ in: Human Studies 39: 325-346 (open access) [access via SharedIt]

Coeckelbergh, M., Pop, C., Simut, R., Peca, A., Pintea, S., David, D. & Vanderborght, B. 2016. ‘A survey of expectations about the role of robots in robot-assisted therapy for children with ASD: Ethical acceptability, trust, sociability, appearance, and attachment’ in: Science and Engineering Ethics 22(1): 47-65. (online first 2015) [access via SharedIt]


Coeckelbergh, M. 2015. ‘Money as Medium and Tool: Reading Simmel as a Philosopher of Technology to Understand Contemporary Financial ICTs and Media’ in: Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 19(3) (Fall 2015): 358–380.

Coeckelbergh, M. 2015. ‘The Tragedy of the Master: Automation, Vulnerability, and Distance‘ in: Ethics and Information Technology 17(3): 219-229. [access via SharedIt]

Coeckelbergh, M. 2015.  ‘Artificial Agents, Good Care, and Modernity‘ in:  Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 36(4): 265-277. [summary] [access via SharedIt]


Stahl B.C., Eden G., Jirotka M. and Coeckelbergh M. 2014. From Computer Ethics to Responsible Research and Innovation in ICT: The Transition of Reference Discourses Informing Ethics-Related Research in Information Systemsin: Information & Management (online first)

Coeckelbergh, M. and Gunkel, D.  2014. ‘Facing Animals: A Relational, Other-Oriented Approach to Moral Standing’ in: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 27 (5): 715-733. [access via SharedIt]

Coeckelbergh, M. 2014. ‘The Moral Standing of Machines: Towards a Relational and Non-Cartesian Moral Hermeneutics’ in: Philosophy & Technology 27 (1): 61-77. [access via SharedIt]


Coeckelbergh, M. 2013. ‘Drones, Information Technology, and Distance: Mapping the Moral Epistemology of Remote Fighting‘ in: ‘Ethics and Information Technology‘ 15 (2): 87-98. [access via SharedIt]

Coeckelbergh, M. 2013. ‘E-Care as Craftsmanship: Virtuous Work, Skilled Engagement, and Information Technology in Health Care‘ in: Medicine, Healthcare and Philosophy 16 (4): 807-816. [access via SharedIt]

Coeckelbergh, M. 2013. ‘Pervasion of What? Techno-Human Ecologies and their Ubiquitous Spirits‘ in: AI & Society (25the anniversary issue: A Faustian exchange: What is to be human in the era of ubiquitous technology?) 28 (1): 55-63. [abstract] [open access] [access via SharedIt]


Coeckelbergh, M. 2012. ‘Technology as Skill and Activity: Revisiting the Problem of Alienation’ in: Techné 16 (3)

Coeckelbergh, M. 2012. ‘Can we trust robots?’ in: Ethics and Information Technology 14(2): 53-60.  (online first 2011)

Coeckelbergh, M. 2012. ‘Are emotional robots deceptive?‘ in: IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing 2(3) [abstract] (online first 2011)


Coeckelbergh, M. 2011. ‘Environmental Virtue: Motivation, Skill, and (In)formation Technology‘ in: Journal of Environmental Philosophy 8(2): 141-170. [journal issue table of content]

Coeckelbergh, M. 2011. ‘Is Ethics of Robotics about Robots? Philosophy of Robotics Beyond Realism and Individualism’ in: Law, Innovation and Technology 3(2): 241-250. [abstract]

Coeckelbergh, M. 2011. ‘Vulnerable Cyborgs: Learning to Live with our Dragons‘ in: Journal of Evolution and Technology 22 (1): 1-9. [htm]

Coeckelbergh, M. 2011. ‘What Are We Doing? Microblogging, the Ordinary Private, and the Primacy of the Present‘ in: Journal of Information, Communication & Ethics in Society 9(2): 127-136. [abstract]

Coeckelbergh, M. 2011. ‘From killer machines to doctrines and swarms, or Why ethics of military robotics is not (necessarily) about robots.‘ in: Philosophy & Technology 24(3): 269-278. (also published on-line 5 April 2011) [abstract] [open access] [access via SharedIt]

Coeckelbergh, M. 2011. ‘Humans, Animals, and Robots: A Phenomenological Approach to Human-Robot Relations‘ in: International Journal of Social Robotics 3(2): 197-204. (also published on-line 4 September 2010) [abstract] [open access] [access via SharedIt]

Coeckelbergh, M. 2011. ‘Moral Responsibility, Technology, and Experiences of the Tragic: From Kierkegaard to Offshore Engineering‘ in: Science and Engineering Ethics 18(1): 35-48. (also published on-line 24 September 2010) [abstract] [open access] [access via SharedIt]

Coeckelbergh, M. 2011. ‘You, Robot: On the Linguistic Construction of Artificial Others‘ in: AI & Society 26(1): 61-69. Reprinted in a special issue of Language and Technology consisting of responses to my work.

Coeckelbergh, M. 2011. ‘Human Development or Human Enhancement? A Methodological Reflection on Capabilities and the Evaluation of Information Technologies‘ in: Ethics and Information Technology 13(2): 81-92. (also published on-line 6 June 2010) [abstract] [open access] [access via SharedIt]


Coeckelbergh, M. 2010. ‘Artificial Companions: Empathy and Vulnerability Mirroring in Human-Robot Relations‘ ‘in: Studies in Ethics, Law, and Technology 4(3) [abstract]

Coeckelbergh, M. 2010. ‘The Spirit in the Network: Models for Spirituality in a Technological Culture‘ in: Zygon: Journal of Religion & Science 45(4): 957-978.

Coeckelbergh, M. 2010. ‘Robot Rights? Towards a Social-Relational Justification of Moral Consideration’ in: Ethics and Information Technology 12(3): 209-221. [abstract] [open access] [access via SharedIt]

Coeckelbergh, M. 2010. ‘Moral Appearances: Emotions, Robots, and Human Morality‘ in: Ethics and Information Technology 12(3): 235-241. [abstract] [access via SharedIt]

Coeckelbergh, M. 2010. ‘Criminals or Patients? Towards a Tragic Conception of Moral and Legal Responsibility‘ in: Criminal Law and Philosophy 4(2): 233-244. [abstract] [open access] [access via SharedIt]

Coeckelbergh, M. 2010. ‘Health Care, Capabilities, and AI Assistive Technologies‘ in: Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 13(2): 181-190. (published online 17 July 2009) [abstract] [access via SharedIt]

Coeckelbergh, M. 2010. ‘Engineering Good: How Engineering Metaphors Help Us to Understand the Moral Life and Change Society‘ in: Science and Engineering Ethics 16(2): 371-385. (published online 1 September 2009) [abstract] [open access] [access via SharedIt]


Coeckelbergh, M. 2009. ‘The Public Thing: On the Idea of a Politics of Artefacts‘ in: Techne 13(3) [table of contents]

Coeckelbergh, M. 2009. ‘Virtual Moral Agency, Virtual Moral Responsibility‘ in: AI & Society 24(2): 181-189.  [link to Springer publication details] [open access] [access via SharedIt]

Coeckelbergh, M. 2009. ‘Personal Robots, Appearance, and Human Good: A Methodological Reflection on Roboethics‘ in: International Journal of Social Robotics 1(3): 217-221. [abstract] [open access] [access via SharedIt]

Coeckelbergh, M. 2009. ‘Distributive Justice and Cooperation in a World of Humans and Non-Humans: A Contractarian Argument for Drawing Non-Humans into the Sphere of Justice‘ in: Res Publica 15(1): 67-84. [abstract] [access via SharedIt]


Coeckelbergh, M. 2007. ‘Violent Computer Games, Empathy, and Cosmopolitanism‘ in: Ethics and Information Technology 9(3): 219-231. [abstract] [access via SharedIt]

Coeckelbergh, M. 2007. ‘Principles or Imagination? Two Approaches to Global Justice’ in: Journal of Global Ethics 3(2): 203-221. [abstract]

Coeckelbergh, M. and G. Wackers 2007. ‘Imagination, Distributed Responsibility, and Vulnerable Technological Systems: The Case of Snorre A’ in: Science & Engineering Ethics 13(2): 235-248. [abstract] [access via SharedIt]

Coeckelbergh, M. 2007. ‘Who Needs Empathy? A Response to Goldie’s Arguments Against Empathy and Suggestions for an Account of Mutual Perspective-Shifting in Contexts of Help and Care’ in: Ethics and Education 2(1): 61-72. [abstract]


Coeckelbergh, M. and J. Mesman 2006. ‘With Hope and Imagination: Imaginative Moral Decision-Making in Neonatal Intensive Care Units’ in: Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 10 (1): 3-21. [abstract] [access via SharedIt] (NVBe Prize 2007)

Coeckelbergh, M. 2006. ‘Regulation or Responsibility? Autonomy, Moral Imagination, and Engineering’ in: Science, Technology, & Human Values 31(3): 1-24. [abstract]


Busby, J.S. and M. Coeckelbergh 2003. ‘The Social Ascription of Obligations to Engineers’ in: Science and Engineering Ethics 9(3): 363-376. [abstract] [pdf] [access via SharedIt]